Science Book for Elementary School

Buku IPA SD kelas 1
A.B.I. Asiknya Belajar IPA



Evi Susanti, Sholehudin
Pusat Perbukuan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional



Class V

Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam

Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam
Heri Sulistyanto, Eddy Wiyono
Pusat Perbukuan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional



Mengenal Alam Sekitar 5
Mengenal Alam Sekitar 5
Kelas : 5
Pengarang : Edy Tarwoko, Yani Muharomah Rukmiati
Penerbit : Pusat Perbukuan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional
Tahun : 2009

list world web domain extension "N"


  • .na – Namibia *
  • .nc – Kaledonia Baru
  • .ne – Niger
  • .nf – Pulau Norfolk *
  • .ng – Nigeria
  • .ni – Nikaragua
  • .nl – Belanda * (first ccTLD registered)
  • .no – Norwegia
  • .np – Nepal
  • .nr – Nauru *
  • .nu – Niue *
  • .nz – Selandia Baru

list world web domain extension "M"


  • .ma – Maroko
  • .mc – Monako
  • .md – Moldova *
  • .me – Montenegro
  • .mg – Madagaskar
  • .mh – Kepulauan Marshall
  • .mk – Republik Makedonia
  • .ml – Mali
  • .mm – Myanmar
  • .mn – Mongolia *
  • .mo – Makau
  • .mp – Kepulauan Mariana Utara *
  • .mq – Martinique
  • .mr – Mauritania
  • .ms – Montserrat *
  • .mt – Malta
  • .mu – Mauritius *
  • .mv – Maladewa
  • .mw – Malawi *
  • .mx – Meksiko *
  • .my – Malaysia
  • .mz – Mozambik

list world web domain extension "L"


  • .la – Laos *
  • .lb – Lebanon
  • .lc – Saint Lucia
  • .li – Liechtenstein *
  • .lk – Sri Lanka
  • .lr – Liberia
  • .ls – Lesotho
  • .lt – Lituania
  • .lu – Luxemburg
  • .lv – Latvia *
  • .ly – Libya *

list world web domain extension "J"


  • .je – Jersey
  • .jm – Jamaika
  • .jo – Yordania
  • .jp – Jepang

list world web domain extension "K"


  • .ke – Kenya
  • .kg – Kirgizstan
  • .kh – Kamboja
  • .ki – Kiribati
  • .km – Komoro
  • .kn – Saint Kitts dan Nevis
  • .kp – Korea Utara (without DNS)
  • .kr – Korea Selatan
  • .kw – Kuwait
  • .ky – Kepulauan Cayman
  • .kz – Kazakhstan

list world web domain extension "I"


  • .id – Indonesia
  • .ie – Republik Irlandia
  • .il – Israel *
  • .im – Pulau Man *
  • .in – India *
  • .io – Teritorial Britania di Samudra Hindia *
  • .iq – Irak
  • .ir – Iran *
  • .is – Islandia
  • .it – Italia

list world web domain extension "H"


  • .hk – Hong Kong *
  • .hm – Pulau Heard dan Kepulauan McDonald *
  • .hn – Honduras *
  • .hr – Kroasia
  • .ht – Haiti
  • .hu – Hongaria *

list world web domain extension "F"


  • .fi – Finlandia
  • .fj – Fiji *
  • .fk – Kepulauan Falkland
  • .fm – Federasi Mikronesia *
  • .fo – Kepulauan Faroe
  • .fr – Perancis

list world web domain extension "G"


  • .ga – Gabon
  • .gb – Britania Raya (Reserved domain by IANA; deprecated – see .uk)
  • .gd – Grenada
  • .ge – Georgia
  • .gf – Guyana Perancis
  • .gg – Guernsey
  • .gh – Ghana
  • .gi – Gibraltar
  • .gl – Greenland
  • .gm – Gambia
  • .gn – Guinea
  • .gp – Guadeloupe
  • .gq – Guinea Khatulistiwa
  • .gr – Yunani *
  • .gs – Georgia Selatan dan Kepulauan Sandwich Selatan *
  • .gt – Guatemala
  • .gu – Guam
  • .gw – Guinea Bissau
  • .gy – Guyana

list world web domain extension "E"


  • .ec – Ekuador
  • .ee – Estonia
  • .eg – Mesir
  • .eh – Sahara Barat (not used, no DNS)
  • .er – Eritrea
  • .es – Spanyol *
  • .et – Ethiopia
  • .eu – Uni Eropa (the domain code "designated" by ISO 3166-1)

list world web domain extension "D"


  • .de – Jerman
  • .dj – Djibouti *
  • .dk – Denmark *
  • .dm – Dominika
  • .do – Republik Dominika
  • .dz – Aljazair (Algeria)

list world web domain extension "C"


  • .ca – Kanada
  • .cc – Pulau Cocos *
  • .cd – Republik Demokratik Kongo (dulunya .zr – Zaire) *
  • .cf – Republik Afrika Tengah
  • .cg – Republik Kongo *
  • .ch – Swiss *
  • .ci – Côte d'Ivoire (Pantai Gading)
  • .ck – Kepulauan Cook *
  • .cl – Chili
  • .cm – Kamerun
  • .cn – Republik Rakyat Cina *
  • .co – Kolombia
  • .cr – Kosta Rika
  • .cs – Serbia dan Montenegro
  • .cu – Kuba
  • .cv – Tanjung Verde
  • .cx – Pulau Natal *
  • .cy – Siprus
  • .cz – Republik Ceko

list world web domain extension "B"


  • .ba – Bosnia Herzegovina
  • .bb – Barbados
  • .bd – Bangladesh
  • .be – Belgia *
  • .bf – Burkina Faso
  • .bg – Bulgaria
  • .bh – Bahrain
  • .bi – Burundi *
  • .bj – Benin
  • .bm – Bermuda
  • .bn – Brunei Darussalam
  • .bo – Bolivia *
  • .br – Brasil *
  • .bs – Bahama *
  • .bt – Bhutan
  • .bv – Pulau Bouvet (tidak dipakai dan tidak terdaftar)
  • .bw – Botswana
  • .by – Belarus
  • .bz – Belize *

Domain names

Domain name (domain name) is given a unique name to identify the name of the computer server such as a web server or email server on a computer network or the Internet. The domain name serves to facilitate the users on the Internet at the time of access to the server, but is also used to remember the name of the server you're visiting without having to know the intricate rows of numbers known as IP addresses. This domain name is also known as a union of a website such as the "". The domain name is sometimes also referred to by the term URL, or web address.

At first domain name can only be written with the Latin alphabet 26, but is now possible to use foreign alphabets with Internationalization domain name.

Domain name system (DNS) is a rule used in the naming system of this domain name.

list world web domain extension "A"

  • .ac – Ascension *
  • .ad – Andorra
  • .ae – Uni Emirat Arab
  • .af – Afganistan
  • .ag – Antigua dan Barbuda *
  • .ai – Anguilla
  • .al – Albania
  • .am – Armenia *
  • .an – Antillen Belanda
  • .ao – Angola
  • .aq – Antartika
  • .ar – Argentina
  • .as – Samoa Amerika *
  • .at – Austria *
  • .au – Australia
  • .aw – Aruba
  • .ax – Åland
  • .az – Azerbaijan

Various websites

A static website, is one form of content within the website that the website is not intended to be updated periodically, and usually is maintained manually by a person using the software editor. There are 3 types of categories of editor software used for maintaining this goal, they are:

    1. Element 1 Text Editor. Examples are Notepad or TextEdit, where the HTML changed in the editor program.
    2. Element 2 WYSIWYG editor. For example Microsoft FrontPage and Macromedia Dreamweaver, where the editing sites using the GUI (Graphical User Interface) and HTML formats are automatically generated by this editor.
    3. Elements 3 editor who already has a template, for example Rapidweaver and iWeb, which, this editor allows users to create and update the website directly to the web server quickly, without having to know anything about HTML. They can choose the template that match their desires, add a picture or object, fill it with writing, and the instant they are able to create a website without having to look at all the HTML codes.

A dynamic website is a website that regularly, the information in it change, or this website can relate to the user with a variety of ways or methods (HTTP cookies or database variables, historical visits, session variables, etc.) can also by direct interaction with form and movement of the mouse. When the web server receives a request from the user to provide a particular page, the page will be automatically taken from the storage media in response to the demand requested by the user. A site can display an ongoing dialogue between two users, monitor the situation changes, or provide information relating to the user.

There are many types of software systems that can be used to generate Dynamic Web System and Dynamic Website, some of which are ColdFusion (CFM), Active Server Pages (ASP), Java Server Pages (JSP) and PHP, a programming language capable to Dynamic generated Web System and Dynamic Website. Site could also contain information including that taken from one or more databases or can also use XML-based technologies, for example, is RSS. Static site content is also in the generated periodically, or, if there are circumstances where he needs to be returned to its original state, then he will be generated, it is to avoid performing to stay awake.

Plugins are available to increase the number of features and capabilities of web browsers, which, this plugin is used to open content is usually in the form of excerpts from the motion picture (active content) for example is Flash, Shockwave or applets written in JAVA. Dynamic HTML also provides for the user so that he can be interactive and realtime, updating the web page (note; the page that was changed, no need to load or reloaded for the changes can be seen), usually the changes they made using the DOM and JavaScript which is available on all current web browsers.

As written above, outside there are some differences in the writing of website terminology. Although ¨ ¨ Website is generally used, but for the Associated Press Stylebook, Reuters, Microsoft, Academia, and the dictionaries are there, writing that they use is to use 2 words, the Web site. This is because the Web ¨ ¨ terminilogi not common, but short of the World Wide Web.

Website History

Website is the inventor Sir Timothy John ¨ ¨ Tim Berners-Lee, while the website is connected to the network, first appeared in 1991. The purpose of the team when creating the website is to facilitate the exchange and update information with fellow researchers at the place he works. On April 30, 1993, CERN (the place where team work) informed that the WWW can be used freely by everyone.

A website could be the work of the individual or individuals, or to show ownership of an organization, company, and usually a few websites that address the specific topics, or particular interests. A website can contain hyperling linking to another website, so, sometimes the difference between websites created by individuals with personal websites created by a business organization may not be noticeable.

Website written, or dynamically converted to HTML and accessed through a software program called a web browser, also known as an HTTP Client. Web pages can be viewed or accessed via computer networks and the Internet, the device might be, Personal Computer, Laptop Computer, PDA or Cellphone.

A website created in a computer system known as Web Server, also called an HTTP server, and this sense can also refer to software used to run this system, which then receives and sends the pages required to respond to requests from users. Apache is the software used in a webserver, and then after that is the Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

Website Definitions

In terminology, the website is a collection of web pages, which are usually summarized in a domain or subdomain, which place in the World Wide Web (WWW) on the Internet. A web page is a document written in HTML format (Hyper Text Markup Language), which is almost always accessible via HTTP, the protocol that conveys information from the website server to be displayed to the user via a web browser. All the publications of these websites can form an information network which is very large.

The pages of the website will be accessible via a URL called Homepage. URL regulate web pages to be a hierarchy, though, hyperlink, hyperlinks in the page set of readers and tell them sususan overall flow of information and how it went.

Some websites require subscriptions (input data) so the user can access some or all of the contents of the website. For example, there are several business sites, sites free e-mail, which requires subkripsi so we can access the site


A web site (often shortened to just site; web site, site) is a term for a group of web pages (web page), which generally is part of a domain name (domain name) or subdomain on the World Wide Web (WWW) on Internet . WWW consists of all web sites that are available to the public. The pages of a web site accessed from a URL that the "root" (root), which called the homepage (main page; often translated as "porch", "home page"), and is usually stored in the same server. Not all web sites can be accessed for free. Some web sites require payment in order to be a customer, such as sites that display pornography, news sites, electronic mail services (e-mail), and others

Community web portal

When he called the Community Portal, a web-site is usually deliberately designed and built based on considerations of taste (collective) of a community. Therefore, the facilities provided at the Community Portal tend to try to meet the needs of the community.

Government web portal

At the end of the explosion of dot-com business in the 1990s, many governments are committed to create a portal site as an information service for their citizens. In the United States, its main portal is, in England the main portal of information services for citizens is to directgov and business information services. Several international studies are conducted to measure transactional capabilities these portals, the most striking is the research conducted by Accenture.

Many American states have their portals that each provide direct access to eCommerce applications (eg, Hawaii Business Express and myIndianaLicense), web-site offices and departments, and more specific information about their homes, businesses, and places an interesting visit.

Most states mentioned above commissioned a firm to manage their portals. One of the most successful companies today are managing NICUSA state portals 18. NICUSA focuses on self-funding model and does not charge fees to the state for management, but more sustained than the payment applications are sold by the company.

Web portal company

In the early 2000s, there was a shift of the previous focus on the industry leading web portal to lead to a corporate intranet portal or "web company". When expecting millions of unaffiliated users to return to a public web portal has provided valuable financial success, so the use of personal web portal to unite the web communications and thinking in a big company come to be seen by most people as a technology that can save cost and labor . Many agencies have the analysis predicts that spending for enterprise intranet web portal will be one of the 5 areas that have the most rapid growth prospects in the Internet technology sector in the first decade of the 21st century.

Regional web portal

Regional web portal

Along with the development and success of international web portals such as Yahoo!, The portal area is also emerging. Some portal areas have local content such as weather forecasts, road maps and local business information. Another striking expansion in the last few years is the shift to a market that had not occurred as the PRC. Web portal with a "local content - global reach" emerging in countries like India (Rediff) and China (Sina). Such portals are able to reach communities that spread across the world.

Development of web portal

Portal Web became popular in late 1990. After the development of a web browser (web browser) in the mid-1990s, many companies tried to build a portal to obtain the Internet market. Web portal gained special attention because for many users, a web portal that opened the home page of their Web browser. Netscape Netcenter became a part of America Online, Walt Disney Company launched, and Excite became a part of AT & T in the late 1990s.

Many portals that started their existence either as a provider of Internet directory and search engine facilities (Excite, Lycos, AltaVista, Infoseek, and Hotbot are some of the oldest services available). Expanding services was a strategy to secure user-base and lengthen the time a user on the portal. Services that require registration such as free email, customization features, and chatrooms were considered to enhance repeat use of the portal. Game, chat, email, news, and other services are also intended to make visitors stay longer, where it will increase advertising revenue.

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